Faites d’une super idée un super business – HBR

 

Pourquoi la méthodologie «lean start-up» améliore la réussite des nouveaux business. Lancer une nouvelle entreprise, qu’il s’agisse d’une …

Lancer une nouvelle entreprise, qu’il s’agisse d’une start-up dans les nouvelles technologies, d’une petite activité ou d’un projet au sein d’un grand groupe, a toujours constitué une aventure hasardeuse. Selon la formule la plus traditionnelle, on rédige un business plan, on le présente à des investisseurs, on monte une équipe, on lance un produit et l’on s’efforce de le vendre de la manière la plus efficace possible. Quelque part, dans cette manière de procéder, on risque très probablement d’essuyer un revers fatal. Les chances ne sont pas de notre côté : comme l’indique une récente recherche menée par Shikhar Ghosh de la Harvard Business School, 75% de toutes les start-up finissent par échouer.

Mais récemment, un mouvement qui contrebalance cet état de fait a vu le jour, un mouvement à même de faire du lancement d’une entreprise une aventure moins risquée. Il s’agit d’une méthodologie que l’on appelle «lean start-up» (que l’on peut traduire approximativement par «entrepreneuriat agile»), qui privilégie l’expérimentation plutôt qu’une planification élaborée, le feed-back des clients plutôt que l’intuition et une approche itérative de la conception plutôt qu’une «conception aboutie dès le départ», que les Anglo-Saxons appellent le «Big Design Up Front» (BDUF).  Bien que cette méthodologie ne date que de quelques années, ses principes – tels que le «produit minimum viable» et la «réorientation» (ou «pivoting», en anglais) – ont rapidement trouvé un écho dans le monde des start-up, et les écoles de commerce ont d’ores et déjà commencé à adapter leurs programmes afin de les enseigner.

Le mouvement lean start-up ne s’est cependant pas encore complètement généralisé et nous ne ressentons pas encore les effets d’un impact d’ampleur. A bien des égards, il se trouve approximativement au même point que le mouvement du big data il y a cinq ans, et consiste donc encore essentiellement en un terme à la mode dont tout le monde ne saisit pas tout à fait la signification. Les entreprises elles-mêmes commencent tout juste à en saisir les implications. Mais, à mesure que ces pratiques s’étendent, elles remettent en cause les idées communément admises concernant l’entrepreneuriat. De nouvelles sociétés en tout genre tentent d’améliorer leurs chances de réussite en suivant ces principes, selon lesquels il faut échouer rapidement pour en tirer des leçons et apprendre toujours plus en continu. Et, malgré le nom même que l’on a donné à cette méthodologie, à long terme, certains de ses résultats les plus spectaculaires pourraient bien se faire au profit des grandes sociétés qui l’adoptent.

Dans cet article, je vous propose une vue d’ensemble des techniques lean start-up et de leurs évolutions. Plus important, j’exposerai la manière dont elles pourraient, associées à d’autre tendances stratégiques et commerciales, marquer l’avènement d’une nouvelle économie entrepreneuriale.

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